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        譯者:鄧小雪 & 陳怡蓓




        Chinese aviation takes off



        The West should not pull up the drawbridge against a new wave of disrupters



        本文選自 The Economist | 取經號原創翻譯

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        OVER the past few decades, established airlines in Europe and America have been hit by one thing after another. First came low-cost carriers, chipping away at their short-haul routes. Lately, a new crop of super-connecting airlines in the Gulf, Emirates, Etihad and Qatar Airways, has lured away their long-haul passengers with superior service and lower fares. Now looms the biggest threat of all—the rise of several promising Chinese airlines (see article). Unfortunately, the response of the incumbents risks depriving passengers of the benefits from this latest wave of competition.



        China’s airlines are rising up the world rankings at a breathtaking pace. In 2007 passengers in China made 184m journeys by air; last year around 550m did. The International Air Transport Association, a trade group, predicts that China will leapfrog America as the world’s biggest market in the coming five years. During the next two decades Airbus and Boeing, the world’s two big manufacturers of passenger aircraft, forecast that Chinese carriers will buy more jets than American ones.



        Passengers who had a choice used to avoid Chinese airlines. Delays were common, accidents frequent and the food inedible. However, after a concerted effort to improve standards, they are winning flyers over. OAG, a data firm, reckons that in 2011-17 the proportion of passenger seats between China and America on Chinese airlines rose from 37% to 61%.



        Losing the battle to fly people in and out of China is one thing. But the menace to the world’s established carriers goes deeper. Just as the Gulf airlines expanded by offering connecting flights to international passengers through their Middle Eastern hubs so, too, are Chinese airlines turning themselves into connectors. The cheapest way to get from London to Australia, for instance, is no longer via Dubai or Abu Dhabi but through Guangzhou, Shanghai or Wuhan. The Chinese authorities have loosened visa requirements to encourage this kind of transfer traffic.



        China’s arrival as an aviation superpower has prompted two responses from big Western carriers—both predictable, neither good. The Europeans are crying foul about government aid, just as they did when the Gulf airlines became a threat. The bosses of Air France-KLM and Lufthansa wail that they are the victims of “unfair trade”. They are lobbying for rules that would let the European Union place unilateral sanctions on subsidised foreign rivals, Chinese carriers among them, even before any investigation has been concluded.


        Cry foul 強烈抗議錯誤(或不公平)


        The fact that Chinese airlines benefit from support from the state is not in question. But the outrage of rivals is shamelessly confected. Around the world, the aviation industry has been built on government support. CE Delft, a research firm, reckons that French airlines get €1bn ($1.2bn) in energy subsidies alone each year. Unilateral sanctions might benefit incumbents, but would restrict choice and harm passengers. A tit-for-tat battle over flying rights would hit Europe harder than China, which is fast becoming a sizeable net exporter of tourists.

        中國航空公司的發展得益于國家的支持,這一點是毫無疑問的。但競爭對手們的憤慨就來得有些不太體面了。世界范圍的航空業都背靠政府的支持。據調查公司CE Delft估算,光是能源補貼這一項,法國航空公司每年就能(從政府)拿到10億歐元(12億美元)。單邊制裁可能會對航空公司有利,但會減少乘客的選擇并損害他們的利益。中國正迅速崛起成一個龐大的游客凈出口國,在旅客權益方面進行針鋒相對的斗爭對歐洲造成的打擊遠超過中國。

        reckon / 5rekEn / to calculate an amount 計算

        tit-for-tat  actions done intentionally to punish other people because they have done something unpleasant to you 以牙還牙,針鋒相對


        The big three American carriers have taken a different tack. They are also happy to play the protectionist card when it suits them. American, Delta and United have all been lobbying hard against the Gulf carriers, for instance. But with China they sniff an opportunity as well as a threat. They want an open-skies treaty, which would allow airlines to fly between any airport in the two countries.



        Fare trade



        In theory, passengers have much to gain from a deal of this sort. In practice, open-skies deals open the door to joint ventures (JVs), which are granted immunity from antitrust rules and so can potentially lead to higher prices. In 2006-16 the share of long-haul passenger traffic controlled by such JVs leapt from 5% to 25%. Three JVs account for almost 80% of the transatlantic market. The established American airlines would love to team up with Chinese rivals in order to dominate the Pacific, too.

        理論上來說 乘客能從這種交易中獲益良多。而在現實中,領空開放協議為合資企業大開方便之門,這些合資企業獲得了反壟斷規定的豁免權,并可能因此導致價格上漲。從2006年到2016年,這類合資企業控制的長途航班份額從5%躍升至25%。三大合資企業占據了跨大西洋航線近80%的市場份額。美國老牌航空公司也希望與中國競爭對手合作,從而壟斷跨太平洋航線。


        Neither shutout nor carve-up is good for passengers. In an ideal world, Europe and America would seek open-skies deals with China but design them to nurture competition rather than mute it. Airline JVs would be barred from gaining antitrust immunity. Airport slots would be allocated more fairly, so that the best landing and take-off times were not hoarded. State handouts would be transparent.


        carve-up  noun[sing.] (BrE, informal) the dividing of sth such as a company or a country into separate parts 拆散;分割;瓜分


         Alas, the chances of reaching such a sensible accommodation with China’s airlines are low. Rising trade tensions between America and China are only part of the explanation (see article). The real problem is that big Western carriers would not much like such policies either.




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